Commit cffa2873 authored by Mark Olesen's avatar Mark Olesen
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STYLE: remove unused random.{3,c} code / manpage

parent ba19b639
.\" $NetBSD: random.3,v 1.4 1995/12/28 08:52:42 thorpej Exp $
.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1983, 1991 The Regents of the University of California.
.\" All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
.\" modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
.\" are met:
.\" 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
.\" 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
.\" notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
.\" documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
.\" 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
.\" must display the following acknowledgement:
.\" This product includes software developed by the University of
.\" California, Berkeley and its contributors.
.\" 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
.\" may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
.\" without specific prior written permission.
.\"
.\" THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
.\" ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
.\" IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
.\" ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
.\" FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
.\" DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
.\" OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
.\" HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
.\" LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
.\" OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
.\" SUCH DAMAGE.
.\"
.\" from: @(#)random.3 6.5 (Berkeley) 4/19/91
.\"
.Dd April 19, 1991
.Dt RANDOM 3
.Os BSD 4.2
.Sh NAME
.Nm random ,
.Nm srandom ,
.Nm initstate ,
.Nm setstate
.Nd better random number generator; routines for changing generators
.Sh SYNOPSIS
.Fd #include <stdlib.h>
.Ft long
.Fn random void
.Ft void
.Fn srandom "unsigned seed"
.Ft char *
.Fn initstate "unsigned seed" "char *state" "int n"
.Ft char *
.Fn setstate "char *state"
.Sh DESCRIPTION
The
.Fn random
function
uses a non-linear additive feedback random number generator employing a
default table of size 31 long integers to return successive pseudo-random
numbers in the range from 0 to
.if t 2\u\s731\s10\d\(mi1.
.if n (2**31)\(mi1.
The period of this random number generator is very large, approximately
.if t 16\(mu(2\u\s731\s10\d\(mi1).
.if n 16*((2**31)\(mi1).
.Pp
The
.Fn random Ns / Fn srandom
have (almost) the same calling sequence and initialization properties as
.Xr rand 3 Ns / Xr srand 3 .
The difference is that
.Xr rand
produces a much less random sequence \(em in fact, the low dozen bits
generated by rand go through a cyclic pattern. All the bits generated by
.Fn random
are usable. For example,
.Sq Li random()&01
will produce a random binary
value.
.Pp
Unlike
.Xr srand ,
.Fn srandom
does not return the old seed; the reason for this is that the amount of
state information used is much more than a single word. (Two other
routines are provided to deal with restarting/changing random
number generators). Like
.Xr rand 3 ,
however,
.Fn random
will by default produce a sequence of numbers that can be duplicated
by calling
.Fn srandom
with
.Ql 1
as the seed.
.Pp
The
.Fn initstate
routine allows a state array, passed in as an argument, to be initialized
for future use. The size of the state array (in bytes) is used by
.Fn initstate
to decide how sophisticated a random number generator it should use \(em the
more state, the better the random numbers will be.
(Current "optimal" values for the amount of state information are
8, 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes; other amounts will be rounded down to
the nearest known amount. Using less than 8 bytes will cause an error.)
The seed for the initialization (which specifies a starting point for
the random number sequence, and provides for restarting at the same
point) is also an argument.
The
.Fn initstate
function
returns a pointer to the previous state information array.
.Pp
Once a state has been initialized, the
.Fn setstate
routine provides for rapid switching between states.
The
.Fn setstate
function
returns a pointer to the previous state array; its
argument state array is used for further random number generation
until the next call to
.Fn initstate
or
.Fn setstate .
.Pp
Once a state array has been initialized, it may be restarted at a
different point either by calling
.Fn initstate
(with the desired seed, the state array, and its size) or by calling
both
.Fn setstate
(with the state array) and
.Fn srandom
(with the desired seed).
The advantage of calling both
.Fn setstate
and
.Fn srandom
is that the size of the state array does not have to be remembered after
it is initialized.
.Pp
With 256 bytes of state information, the period of the random number
generator is greater than
.if t 2\u\s769\s10\d,
.if n 2**69
which should be sufficient for most purposes.
.Sh AUTHOR
Earl T. Cohen
.Sh DIAGNOSTICS
If
.Fn initstate
is called with less than 8 bytes of state information, or if
.Fn setstate
detects that the state information has been garbled, error
messages are printed on the standard error output.
.Sh SEE ALSO
.Xr rand 3
.Sh HISTORY
These
functions appeared in
.Bx 4.2 .
.Sh BUGS
About 2/3 the speed of
.Xr rand 3 .
/* $NetBSD: random.c,v 1.4 1995/12/28 08:52:43 thorpej Exp $ */
/*
* Copyright (c) 1983 Regents of the University of California.
* All rights reserved.
*
* Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
* modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
* are met:
* 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
* notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
* documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* 3. All advertising materials mentioning features or use of this software
* must display the following acknowledgement:
* This product includes software developed by the University of
* California, Berkeley and its contributors.
* 4. Neither the name of the University nor the names of its contributors
* may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
* without specific prior written permission.
*
* THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE REGENTS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
* ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
* IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
* ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE REGENTS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
* FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
* DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
* OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
* HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
* LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
* OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
* SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#if defined(LIBC_SCCS) && !defined(lint)
#if 0
static char *sccsid = "from: @(#)random.c 5.9 (Berkeley) 2/23/91";
#else
static char *rcsid = "$NetBSD: random.c,v 1.4 1995/12/28 08:52:43 thorpej Exp $";
#endif
#endif /* LIBC_SCCS and not lint */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
/*
* random.c:
*
* An improved random number generation package. In addition to the standard
* rand()/srand() like interface, this package also has a special state info
* interface. The initstate() routine is called with a seed, an array of
* bytes, and a count of how many bytes are being passed in; this array is
* then initialized to contain information for random number generation with
* that much state information. Good sizes for the amount of state
* information are 32, 64, 128, and 256 bytes. The state can be switched by
* calling the setstate() routine with the same array as was initiallized
* with initstate(). By default, the package runs with 128 bytes of state
* information and generates far better random numbers than a linear
* congruential generator. If the amount of state information is less than
* 32 bytes, a simple linear congruential R.N.G. is used.
*
* Internally, the state information is treated as an array of longs; the
* zeroeth element of the array is the type of R.N.G. being used (small
* integer); the remainder of the array is the state information for the
* R.N.G. Thus, 32 bytes of state information will give 7 longs worth of
* state information, which will allow a degree seven polynomial. (Note:
* the zeroeth word of state information also has some other information
* stored in it -- see setstate() for details).
*
* The random number generation technique is a linear feedback shift register
* approach, employing trinomials (since there are fewer terms to sum up that
* way). In this approach, the least significant bit of all the numbers in
* the state table will act as a linear feedback shift register, and will
* have period 2^deg - 1 (where deg is the degree of the polynomial being
* used, assuming that the polynomial is irreducible and primitive). The
* higher order bits will have longer periods, since their values are also
* influenced by pseudo-random carries out of the lower bits. The total
* period of the generator is approximately deg*(2**deg - 1); thus doubling
* the amount of state information has a vast influence on the period of the
* generator. Note: the deg*(2**deg - 1) is an approximation only good for
* large deg, when the period of the shift register is the dominant factor.
* With deg equal to seven, the period is actually much longer than the
* 7*(2**7 - 1) predicted by this formula.
*/
/*
* For each of the currently supported random number generators, we have a
* break value on the amount of state information (you need at least this
* many bytes of state info to support this random number generator), a degree
* for the polynomial (actually a trinomial) that the R.N.G. is based on, and
* the separation between the two lower order coefficients of the trinomial.
*/
#define TYPE_0 0 /* linear congruential */
#define BREAK_0 8
#define DEG_0 0
#define SEP_0 0
#define TYPE_1 1 /* x**7 + x**3 + 1 */
#define BREAK_1 32
#define DEG_1 7
#define SEP_1 3
#define TYPE_2 2 /* x**15 + x + 1 */
#define BREAK_2 64
#define DEG_2 15
#define SEP_2 1
#define TYPE_3 3 /* x**31 + x**3 + 1 */
#define BREAK_3 128
#define DEG_3 31
#define SEP_3 3
#define TYPE_4 4 /* x**63 + x + 1 */
#define BREAK_4 256
#define DEG_4 63
#define SEP_4 1
/*
* Array versions of the above information to make code run faster --
* relies on fact that TYPE_i == i.
*/
#define MAX_TYPES 5 /* max number of types above */
static int degrees[MAX_TYPES] = { DEG_0, DEG_1, DEG_2, DEG_3, DEG_4 };
static int seps [MAX_TYPES] = { SEP_0, SEP_1, SEP_2, SEP_3, SEP_4 };
/*
* Initially, everything is set up as if from:
*
* initstate(1, &randtbl, 128);
*
* Note that this initialization takes advantage of the fact that srandom()
* advances the front and rear pointers 10*rand_deg times, and hence the
* rear pointer which starts at 0 will also end up at zero; thus the zeroeth
* element of the state information, which contains info about the current
* position of the rear pointer is just
*
* MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + TYPE_3 == TYPE_3.
*/
static long randtbl[DEG_3 + 1] = {
TYPE_3,
0x9a319039, 0x32d9c024, 0x9b663182, 0x5da1f342, 0xde3b81e0, 0xdf0a6fb5,
0xf103bc02, 0x48f340fb, 0x7449e56b, 0xbeb1dbb0, 0xab5c5918, 0x946554fd,
0x8c2e680f, 0xeb3d799f, 0xb11ee0b7, 0x2d436b86, 0xda672e2a, 0x1588ca88,
0xe369735d, 0x904f35f7, 0xd7158fd6, 0x6fa6f051, 0x616e6b96, 0xac94efdc,
0x36413f93, 0xc622c298, 0xf5a42ab8, 0x8a88d77b, 0xf5ad9d0e, 0x8999220b,
0x27fb47b9,
};
/*
* fptr and rptr are two pointers into the state info, a front and a rear
* pointer. These two pointers are always rand_sep places aparts, as they
* cycle cyclically through the state information. (Yes, this does mean we
* could get away with just one pointer, but the code for random() is more
* efficient this way). The pointers are left positioned as they would be
* from the call
*
* initstate(1, randtbl, 128);
*
* (The position of the rear pointer, rptr, is really 0 (as explained above
* in the initialization of randtbl) because the state table pointer is set
* to point to randtbl[1] (as explained below).
*/
static long *fptr = &randtbl[SEP_3 + 1];
static long *rptr = &randtbl[1];
/*
* The following things are the pointer to the state information table, the
* type of the current generator, the degree of the current polynomial being
* used, and the separation between the two pointers. Note that for efficiency
* of random(), we remember the first location of the state information, not
* the zeroeth. Hence it is valid to access state[-1], which is used to
* store the type of the R.N.G. Also, we remember the last location, since
* this is more efficient than indexing every time to find the address of
* the last element to see if the front and rear pointers have wrapped.
*/
static long *state = &randtbl[1];
static int rand_type = TYPE_3;
static int rand_deg = DEG_3;
static int rand_sep = SEP_3;
static long *end_ptr = &randtbl[DEG_3 + 1];
/*
* srandom:
*
* Initialize the random number generator based on the given seed. If the
* type is the trivial no-state-information type, just remember the seed.
* Otherwise, initializes state[] based on the given "seed" via a linear
* congruential generator. Then, the pointers are set to known locations
* that are exactly rand_sep places apart. Lastly, it cycles the state
* information a given number of times to get rid of any initial dependencies
* introduced by the L.C.R.N.G. Note that the initialization of randtbl[]
* for default usage relies on values produced by this routine.
*/
void
srandom(x)
u_int x;
{
register int i, j;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[0] = x;
else {
j = 1;
state[0] = x;
for (i = 1; i < rand_deg; i++)
state[i] = 1103515245 * state[i - 1] + 12345;
fptr = &state[rand_sep];
rptr = &state[0];
for (i = 0; i < 10 * rand_deg; i++)
(void)random();
}
}
/*
* initstate:
*
* Initialize the state information in the given array of n bytes for future
* random number generation. Based on the number of bytes we are given, and
* the break values for the different R.N.G.'s, we choose the best (largest)
* one we can and set things up for it. srandom() is then called to
* initialize the state information.
*
* Note that on return from srandom(), we set state[-1] to be the type
* multiplexed with the current value of the rear pointer; this is so
* successive calls to initstate() won't lose this information and will be
* able to restart with setstate().
*
* Note: the first thing we do is save the current state, if any, just like
* setstate() so that it doesn't matter when initstate is called.
*
* Returns a pointer to the old state.
*/
char *
initstate(seed, arg_state, n)
u_int seed; /* seed for R.N.G. */
char *arg_state; /* pointer to state array */
int n; /* # bytes of state info */
{
register char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[-1] = rand_type;
else
state[-1] = MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + rand_type;
if (n < BREAK_0) {
(void)fprintf(stderr,
"random: not enough state (%d bytes); ignored.\n", n);
return 0;
}
if (n < BREAK_1) {
rand_type = TYPE_0;
rand_deg = DEG_0;
rand_sep = SEP_0;
} else if (n < BREAK_2) {
rand_type = TYPE_1;
rand_deg = DEG_1;
rand_sep = SEP_1;
} else if (n < BREAK_3) {
rand_type = TYPE_2;
rand_deg = DEG_2;
rand_sep = SEP_2;
} else if (n < BREAK_4) {
rand_type = TYPE_3;
rand_deg = DEG_3;
rand_sep = SEP_3;
} else {
rand_type = TYPE_4;
rand_deg = DEG_4;
rand_sep = SEP_4;
}
state = &(((long *)arg_state)[1]); /* first location */
end_ptr = &state[rand_deg]; /* must set end_ptr before srandom */
srandom(seed);
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[-1] = rand_type;
else
state[-1] = MAX_TYPES*(rptr - state) + rand_type;
return(ostate);
}
/*
* setstate:
*
* Restore the state from the given state array.
*
* Note: it is important that we also remember the locations of the pointers
* in the current state information, and restore the locations of the pointers
* from the old state information. This is done by multiplexing the pointer
* location into the zeroeth word of the state information.
*
* Note that due to the order in which things are done, it is OK to call
* setstate() with the same state as the current state.
*
* Returns a pointer to the old state information.
*/
char *
setstate(arg_state)
char *arg_state;
{
register long *new_state = (long *)arg_state;
register int type = new_state[0] % MAX_TYPES;
register int rear = new_state[0] / MAX_TYPES;
char *ostate = (char *)(&state[-1]);
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
state[-1] = rand_type;
else
state[-1] = MAX_TYPES * (rptr - state) + rand_type;
switch(type) {
case TYPE_0:
case TYPE_1:
case TYPE_2:
case TYPE_3:
case TYPE_4:
rand_type = type;
rand_deg = degrees[type];
rand_sep = seps[type];
break;
default:
(void)fprintf(stderr,
"random: state info corrupted; not changed.\n");
}
state = &new_state[1];
if (rand_type != TYPE_0) {
rptr = &state[rear];
fptr = &state[(rear + rand_sep) % rand_deg];
}
end_ptr = &state[rand_deg]; /* set end_ptr too */
return(ostate);
}
/*
* random:
*
* If we are using the trivial TYPE_0 R.N.G., just do the old linear
* congruential bit. Otherwise, we do our fancy trinomial stuff, which is
* the same in all the other cases due to all the global variables that have
* been set up. The basic operation is to add the number at the rear pointer
* into the one at the front pointer. Then both pointers are advanced to
* the next location cyclically in the table. The value returned is the sum
* generated, reduced to 31 bits by throwing away the "least random" low bit.
*
* Note: the code takes advantage of the fact that both the front and
* rear pointers can't wrap on the same call by not testing the rear
* pointer if the front one has wrapped.
*
* Returns a 31-bit random number.
*/
long
random()
{
long i;
if (rand_type == TYPE_0)
i = state[0] = (state[0] * 1103515245 + 12345) & 0x7fffffff;
else {
*fptr += *rptr;
i = (*fptr >> 1) & 0x7fffffff; /* chucking least random bit */
if (++fptr >= end_ptr) {
fptr = state;
++rptr;
} else if (++rptr >= end_ptr)
rptr = state;
}
return(i);
}
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